Volume 3, Issue 2, April 2014, Page: 102-107
Heat Unit, Phenology and Fruit Quality of Salak (Salacca zalacca var. Amboinensis) cv. Gulapasir on Different Elevation in Tabanan Regency-Bali
I K. Sumantra, Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Mahasaraswati University, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia
I N. L. Suyasdi Pura, Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Mahasaraswati University, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia
Sumeru Ashari, Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
Received: Mar. 4, 2014;       Accepted: Apr. 9, 2014;       Published: Apr. 10, 2014
DOI: 10.11648/j.aff.20140302.18      View  3295      Downloads  220
Abstract
Each cultivar of zalacca could adapt to elevation, which has close relationship with the plant tolerance to temperature. However, heat unit of zalacca cv. Gulapasir, which are required to reach definite phase if they are grown in Tabanan areas have not known yet. The main objective of the research was to study heat unit, phenology and fruit quality of zalacca cv. Gulapasir planted on different elevation in Tabanan-Bali. The research was designed using Randomized Completely Design (RCD), with one factor as dependent variable along with ten replications. The independent variable was the site altitude of three locations that includes Saribuana village (460 m asl), Pajahan village (570 m asl), and Batungsel village (700 m asl). The phenologic determination of zalacca is based on the heat unit, which is counted using equation [(T.max + T.min)/2]-T.base, in which T.max and T.min is daily mean maximum and minimum temperatures, respectively, and T.base is the basic temperature. The parameters measured were the emergence of midrib and spatha, the numbers of fruits per bunch, fruit weight, the harvest time, the thickness of the mesocarpium, total soluble solids (TSS), and total acid levels. Data was analyzed by analysis of variance, if the test of variance showed significant difference then it would be followed by LSD test in level 5%. Result of the research showed that different heat unit causes diverse phenology of the zalacca’s components, which include the growth of midrib, the emergence of spatha, and the harvest time. Ripe-consumed zalacca was planted in Saribuana(460 m asl) in 7.4 days earlier than zalacca planted in Batungsel, which was 4.2 days earlier than others that were planted in Pajahan. The zalacca cv. Gulapasir were planted at Pajahan (570 m asl) shows the higher quality of fruit such as thickness of the mesocarpium, edible portion, TSS/total acidity ratio, and numbers of fruit then the others two elevation.
Keywords
Zalacca Cv. Gulapasir, Heat unit, Phenology, Quality, Elevation, Tabanan Regency
To cite this article
I K. Sumantra, I N. L. Suyasdi Pura, Sumeru Ashari, Heat Unit, Phenology and Fruit Quality of Salak (Salacca zalacca var. Amboinensis) cv. Gulapasir on Different Elevation in Tabanan Regency-Bali, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2014, pp. 102-107. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20140302.18
Reference
[1]
Anarsis, W. 1999. Agribisnis komoditi salak. Penerbit Bumi Aksara, Jakarta.
[2]
Bank of Indonesia. 2004. Funding Pattern of Small-Scale Business. Superior zalacca breeding.
[3]
[BAPPEDA] Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah, 2007. Karangasem dalam angka. The Body of Regional Development Design of Karangasem.
[4]
Dinas Pertanian. 2009. Luas tanam, luas panen dan produksi buah-buahan. Dinas Pertanian Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura Prop. Bali.
[5]
Ashari 2002. On the agronomy and botany of Salak (Salacca zalacca). PhD Thesis Wageningen University. pp. 126.
[6]
Bernier, G.B., J.M. Kinet, R.M. Sachs. 1985. The initiation of flowering. In The Physiology of Flowering. Vol. I. Florida CRC Press, Inc. pp. 3-116.
[7]
Black, B., J. Frisby, K. Lewers, F. Takeda, C.Finn. 2008. Heat unit model for predicting bloom dates in Rubus. Hort. Science 43(7): 2000-2004
[8]
Calvo, I.C.F., and J.R. Obesco. 2004. Growth, nutrient content, fruit production and herbivory in bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. along an altitudinal gradient. Forestry, 77 (3): 213-223.
[9]
Djaenudin, Marwan H., H. Subagyo, A. Mulyani and N. Suharta. 2000. Land suitability criteria for agricultural commodity. The Center of Soil and Agroclimate Research, the Institute of Agricultural Research and Development, Department of Agriculture.
[10]
Ghosh, B.C. and S. Palit. 2003. Nutrition of tropical horticulture crops and quality products. in Ramdane Dris R. Niskanen, S.M. Jain (ed). Crop management and postharvest handling of horticultural products. Crop fertilization nutrition and growth. Science Publishers. Vol.III, 133-200 p.
[11]
Ghulam Qadir, G., M. A. Cheema, F.Hassan, M. Ashraf, and M.A. Wahid. 2007. Relationship of heat units accumulation and fatty acid composition in Sunflower. Pak. J. Agri. Sci., 44(1) 24-29.
[12]
Kinet,J.M., R.M. Sach, G.B. Bernier. 1985. The development of flowers. In The Physiology of Flowering. Volume III. Florida:CRC Press. Inc. pp. 274.
[13]
Léchaudel, M., M. Génard, F. Lescourret, L. Urban, and M. Jannoyer. 2005. Modeling effects of weather and source–sink relationships on mango fruit growth. Tree Physiology 25: 583–597
[14]
Polii, M.G.M. 2003. Penentuan umur berbuah tanaman cabe merah (Capsicum anuum var.longum sendt) pada tiga tinggi tempat yang berbeda menggunakan metode satuan panas. Eugenia 9 (2):104-108.
[15]
Purnomo, S., Sudaryono. 1994. Seleksi tanaman unggul dalam populasi salak Bali dan salak Pondoh. Laporan Penelitian. Sub Balai Penelitian Hortikultura, Malang.
[16]
Rai, I.N., C.G.A. Semarajaya, I.W.Wiratmaja, 2010. Studi fenofisiologi pembungaan salak Gula Pasir sebagai upaya mengatasi kegagalan fruit set. J. Hort. 20 (3): 216-222.
[17]
Rubiyo dan B. Sunarso. 2004. Tingkat produktivitas salak (Salacca Edulis L.) dan status hara tanah menurut ketinggian tempat di Bali. http://ntb.litbang.deptan.go.id/ind/2005/ TPH/tingkatproduktivitas.doc (20 Desember 2011). 7 pp.
[18]
Salisbury FB, Ross CW. 1991. Plant Physiology 4th Edition. Wadsworth Publisher.
[19]
Singh, D. K., V. K. Singh, R. B. Ram and L. P. Yadava. 2011. Relationship of heat units (degree days) with softening status of fruits in mango cv. Dashehari. Plant Archives 11 (1): 227-230.
[20]
Soleh, M. Suhardjo, A.Suryadi. 1996. Pengaruh pemberian air dan masukan hara makro dan mikro terhadap produksi salak. Laporan Hasil Penelitian. Sub Balihorti, Malang. 43 – 52 p.
[21]
Steel R.G.D and J.H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. Mc. Graw-Hill, Inc.
[22]
Sumantra, K., Sumeru Ashari, Tatik Wardiyati, Agus Suryanto. 2012. The agroecosytem approach as a basis concept in sustainable cultivation of gulapasir zallaca in new development areas in Bali. The International Conference on Sustainable Development (ICSD) 6 March 2012, Grand Inna Bali Beach, Sanur Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia.
[23]
Tjahyadi, N. 1998. Bertanam Salak. Panerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta.
[24]
Widiastuti, A., E. R. Palupi. 2008. Viabilitas serbuk sari dan pengaruhnya terhadap keberhasilan pembentukan buah kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Biodiversitas. 9 (1) 35-38
[25]
Wijana, G. 1990. Telaah sifat-sifat buah salak Gulapasir sebagai dasar penggunaannya. Fakultas Pascasarjana, Institut Pertanian Bogor.
[26]
Wijana, G. A. Gunadi dan N. Kencana Putra. 1993. Upaya peningkatan kuantitas dan kualitas buah salak Bali dengan penentuan waktu penjarangan dan jumlah buah per tandan. Laporan Penelitian. F.P. Unud Denpasar.
[27]
Wijana, G., K.Suter, A.Semarajaya. 1994. Upaya pelestarian pengembangan dan peningkatan produksi salak kultivar Gula Pasir. Laporan Penelitian Hibah Bersaing I/2 Perguruan Tinggi 1993/1994. F.P. Unud Denpasar.
Browse journals by subject