Volume 3, Issue 4, August 2014, Page: 292-298
Effects of Wastewater Characteristics on Fish Quality from Integrated Wastewater Treatment System and Fish Farming in Urban Areas, Tanzania
Ahamdi Habibu Mkali, Department of Water & Environmental Science and Engineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, NM-AIST, Arusha, Tanzania
Jasper Ijumba, Department of Water & Environmental Science and Engineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, NM-AIST, Arusha, Tanzania
Karoli Nicholas Njau, Department of Water & Environmental Science and Engineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, NM-AIST, Arusha, Tanzania
Received: Aug. 19, 2014;       Accepted: Aug. 28, 2014;       Published: Sep. 10, 2014
DOI: 10.11648/j.aff.20140304.21      View  3326      Downloads  278
Abstract
Availability of suitable water is one of the most important limiting factors for development of sustainable aquaculture in the urban areas. As a consequence, the use of wastewater effluents for aquaculture is on the rise in developing countries, Tanzania being one of the implementing country; quality of fish from such environments becomes questionable for human consumption. Clarius gariepinus were raised in selected Wastewater Stabilization Ponds (WSPs) at Moshi Municipal (Maturation two (M 2), four (M 4), six (M 6), fish pond (FP) and Lake Duluti (LD as Control site) for ninety days to investigate fish contamination (heavy metals and microbial) and body composition. Among all seven selected heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Mo, Cr, As, Zn and Pb) only four (Hg, Cd, Cr and Zn) were detected in analyzed fish and water samples, while (Pb, Mo and As) was below detection limits of X-Ray Fluorescence (Spectro xepos –EDXRF) analyzer. The results revealed that fish sample had higher concentration of detected metals than water samples from all treatments except for Hg of water sample from M2 and M4 was higher than fish sample and above the permissible limits by WHO. There was variation in crude protein and crude fat in analyzed fish samples from all treatments site. The fish reared in M4 contain higher percentage of crude protein (81.36) and crude fat (18.45) than other treatments. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in fish samples from all treatments with number of counts was within standards, while Salmonella spp was only present in M2. Results from this study reveals that with proper management, maturation ponds can be used for fish production but maturation two should be abandoned for fish farming due to high metals and microbial contamination. Public awareness on the dangers to which fish consumers from the site are exposed is highly suggested and purposeful mitigation measures of stopping all fishing activities in these sites is needed until further study on quality of indigenous fish accomplished.
Keywords
Wastewater Quality, Heavy Metal, Microbiological and Body Composition
To cite this article
Ahamdi Habibu Mkali, Jasper Ijumba, Karoli Nicholas Njau, Effects of Wastewater Characteristics on Fish Quality from Integrated Wastewater Treatment System and Fish Farming in Urban Areas, Tanzania, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2014, pp. 292-298. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20140304.21
Reference
[1]
Abdel-Baki A, Dkhil M and Al-Quraishy S. (2013) Bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in tilapia fish relevant to their concentration in water and sediment of Wadi Hanifah, Saudi Arabia. African Journal of Biotechnology 10: 2541-2547.
[2]
Abdul-Rahaman I, Owusu-Frimpong M and Ofori-Danson PK. (2012) Sewage Fish Culture as an Alternative to Address the Conflict between Hunters and Hunting Communities in Northern Region. Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability 1.
[3]
Abreu-Acosta N and Vera L. (2011) Occurrence and removal of parasites, enteric bacteria and fecal contamination indicators in wastewater natural reclamation systems in Tenerife-Canary Islands, Spain. Ecological Engineering 37: 496-503.
[4]
Aktar MW, Paramasivam M, Ganguly M, et al. (2010) Assessment and occurrence of various heavy metals in surface water of Ganga River around Kolkata: a study for toxicity and ecological impact. Environmental monitoring and assessment 160: 207-213.
[5]
Aktar MW, Sengupta D and Chowdhury A. (2011) Occurrence of heavy metals in fish: a study for impact assessment in industry prone aquatic environment around Kolkata in India. Environmental monitoring and assessment 181: 51-61.
[6]
Amagliani G, Brandi G and Schiavano G. (2012) Incidence and role of< i> Salmonella in seafood safety. Food Research International 45: 780-788.
[7]
Ampofo JA and Clerk GC. (2010) Diversity of bacteria contaminants in tissues of fish cultured in organic waste-fertilized ponds: health implications. Open Fish Science Journal 3: 142-146.
[8]
Asdari R, ALIYU‐PAIKO M, Hashim R, et al. (2011) Effects of different dietary lipid sources in the diet for Pangasius hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878) juvenile on growth performance, nutrient utilization, body indices and muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Aquaculture Nutrition 17: 44-53.
[9]
Bhuvaneshwari R, Mamtha N and PaneerSelvam B. (2012) Bioaccumulation of Metals in Muscle, Liver And Gills Of Six Commercial Fish Species at Anaikarai Dam of River Kaveri, South India. International Journal of PharmTech Research 2: 0976-4550.
[10]
Emikpe B, Adebisi T and Adedeji O. (2011) Bacteria load on the skin and stomach of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus from Ibadan, South West Nigeria: public health implications. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research 1: 52-59.
[11]
Ernawati Y. (2014). The analysis of the concentration of heavy metals cadmium, mercury and lead in the flesh of suckermouth catfish (Pterygoplichthys pardalis) in Ciliwung River, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux 7: 33-42.
[12]
FAO/NACA WHO. (1999) Food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture: report of a joint FAO/NACA/WHO study group World Health Organization 883.
[13]
Georgescu B, Georgescu C, Dărăban S, et al. (2011) Heavy metals acting as endocrine disrupters. Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies 44: 89-93.
[14]
Henson S and Humphrey J. (2009). The impacts of private food safety standards on the food chain and on public standard-setting processes. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
[15]
Joint F, Additives WECoF and Organization WH. (2007) Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: sixty-seventh report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.
[16]
Kihampa C. (2013) Heavy metal contamination in water and sediment downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. International Journal of Environmental Sciences 3: 1407-1415.
[17]
Kumar B, Mukherjee D, Kumar S, et al. (2011) Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in muscle tissue of fishes from selected aquaculture ponds in east Kolkata wetlands. Annals of Biological Research 2: 125-134.
[18]
Kumar MS and Sierp M. (2003) Integrated wastewater treatment and aquaculture production. Rural industries research & Development Corporation. Extraído dehttp://www. rirdc. gov. au/reports/Ras/03-026. Pdf.
[19]
Malik N, Biswas A, Qureshi T, et al. (2010) Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish tissues of a freshwater lake of Bhopal. Environmental monitoring and assessment 160: 267-276.
[20]
Mbuligwe SE and Kaseva ME. (2005) Pollution and self-cleansing of an urban river in a developing country: A case study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Environmental management 36: 328-342.
[21]
Mdegela R, Braathen M, Pereka A, et al. (2009) Heavy metals and organochlorine residues in water, sediments, and fish in aquatic ecosystems in Urban and Peri-Urban areas in Tanzania. Water, air, and soil pollution 203: 369-379.
[22]
Mojid M, Wyseure G, Biswas S, et al. (2010) Farmers’ perceptions and knowledge in using wastewater for irrigation at twelve peri-urban areas and two sugar mill areas in Bangladesh. Agricultural Water Management 98: 79-86.
[23]
Mwegoha W and Kihampa C. (2010) Heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils and water in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 4: 763-769.
[24]
Nyirenda M, Ramoabi TE, Dzoma BM, et al. (2013) A comparative study of the levels of heavy metals in dam water, borehole water and cattle serum around the Modimola dam of the Mafikeng, North West province, South Africa. Life 10.
[25]
Nziku AJ and Namkinga L. (2013) Heavy metal pollution in the receiving environment of the University of Dar Es Salaam waste stabilization ponds. Journal of Biology and Life Science 4.
[26]
Obasohan E, Oronsaye J and Eguavoen O. (2008) A Comparative Assessment of the Heavy Metal Loads in the Tissues of a Common Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) From Ikpoba and Ogba Rivers in Benin City. Nigeria Afr Sci 9: 13-23.
[27]
Omar HE-DM. (2013) Seasonal variation of heavy metals accumulation in muscles of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus and in River Nile water and sediments at Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Journal of Biology and Earth Sciences 3: B236-B248.
[28]
Polder A, Müller M, Lyche J, et al. (2014) Levels and patterns of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in tilapia (< i> Oreochromis sp.) from four different lakes in Tanzania: Geographical differences and implications for human health. Science of the Total Environment 488: 252-260.
[29]
Sato T, Qadir M, Yamamoto S, et al. (2013) Global, regional, and country level need for data on wastewater generation, treatment, and use. Agricultural Water Management 130: 1-13.
[30]
Singh AK, Srivastava SC, Ansari A, et al. (2012) Environmental monitoring and health risk assessment of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) cultured in rural ponds, India. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 89: 1142-1147.
[31]
Tenkorang A, Yeboah-Agyepong M, Buamah R, et al. (2012) Promoting sustainable sanitation through wastewater-fed aquaculture: a case study from Ghana. Water International 37: 831-842.
[32]
WHO. (2006) WHO Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater Excreta and Grey water: World Health Organization.
Browse journals by subject