Volume 9, Issue 1, February 2020, Page: 14-21
Effect of Schizochytrium sp., on the Growth, Fatty Acid Composition, Digestive Enzyme and Serum Biochemical Composition of Postlarval Litopenaeus vannamei
Guofang Zhong, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Fisheries Science Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Aquaculture, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China; Centre for Research on Environmental Ecology and Fish Nutrion (CREEFN) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China
Jovin Hasjim, Roquette Management (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China
Blandine Baert, Roquette Lestrem, Paris, France
Ling Lu, Roquette Management (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China
Received: Nov. 11, 2019;       Accepted: Nov. 28, 2019;       Published: Apr. 14, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.aff.20200901.12      View  369      Downloads  124
In this study, shrimp feed was substituted with a dried alga, Schizochytrium sp., at five levels (0, 10, 20, 40, and 60% of compound feed) to yield protein/energy (P/E) ratios of 22.72, 19.75, 16.71, 13.72 and 10.75 mg protein/KJ, respectively. The effects of this substitution on the specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities and biochemical composition of the sera in postlarval white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were evaluated. Four replicates, each consisting of 5,000 postlarval shrimp in a single cage, were performed at each substitution level. The postlarval shrimp were randomly distributed to 20 cages, and the duration of the trial was 50 d. The results showed that the best performance was obtained with a diet containing 40% dried Schizochytrium. The survival rate of the 40% trial group was 24% higher than that of the shrimp fed a control diet (p < 0.05). The final body weight gain and SGR peaked at a substitution level of 40% dried Schizochytrium (p < 0.05). The feed conversion ratios (FCRs) of the 20% and 40% trial groups were significantly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.05). The muscle protein and ash contents of the shrimp fed diets containing 20% and 40% dried algae were higher than those of the shrimp fed the control diet (p < 0.05). Although the level of dried Schizochytrium was associated with a decrease in the protease specific activity, an increase in the lipase activity was observed. The serum biochemical composition of the shrimp was significantly affected by the level of dried Schizochytrium in the diet (p < 0.05). In summary, when the feed content of dried Schizochytrium ranged from 20 to 40%, an optimal P/E ratio of 13.72-16.71 mg protein/KJ was achieved. Thus, such supplementation could increase the amount of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) and decrease the required level of protein in the production of high-quality feed.
Schizochytrium sp, Fatty Acids, Growth, Proteases, Lipases, Serum Lipid and Protein Composition
To cite this article
Guofang Zhong, Jovin Hasjim, Blandine Baert, Ling Lu, Effect of Schizochytrium sp., on the Growth, Fatty Acid Composition, Digestive Enzyme and Serum Biochemical Composition of Postlarval Litopenaeus vannamei, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Vol. 9, No. 1, 2020, pp. 14-21. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20200901.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Bengtson DA, Léger P, Sorgeloos P (1991) Use of Artemia as a food source for aquaculture. In Artemia Biology. Edited by Browne RA, Sorgeloos P, Trotman CNA. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1991, 255–285.
Tacon, A. G. J. & Akiyama, D. M. (1997). Feed ingredients. In: Crustacean Nutrition Advances in World Aquaculture (D_Abramo, L. R., Conklin, D. E. & Akiyama, D. M. eds), pp. 411–472. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
Motte Constant, Rios Alfredo, Lefebvre Thomas, Do Hong, Henry Morgane, Jintasataporn Orapint. (2019). Replacing Fish Meal with Defatted Insect Meal (Yellow Mealworm Tenebrio molitor) Improves the Growth and Immunity of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) [J]. Animals: an open access journal from MDPI, 9 (5).
Shan H, Zhao X, Zhou Y, et al. (2019). Effects of freeze-dried powder of the Antarctic krill Euphausia superba on the growth performance, molting and fatty acid composition of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei [J]. Aquaculture Research, 00: 1–12.
Vikas Kumar, Habte-Michael Habte-Tsion, El-Haroun E. et al. (2018). Replacement of fish oil with Schizochytrium meal and its impacts on the growth and lipid metabolism of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) [J]. Aquaculture Nutrition, 1-13.
César Molina-Poveda, Ricardo Cárdenas, Jover M. (2015). Evaluation of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) protein sources as partial substitutes for fish meal in Litopenaeus vannamei grow-out diets [J]. Aquaculture Research, 2015: n/a-n/a.
Samocha, T. M., Patnaik, S., Davis, D. A., Bullis, R. A. & Browdy, C. L. (2010). Use of commercial fermentation products as HUFA source in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquacult. Res., 41, 961–967.
Patnaik, S., Samocha, T. M., Davis, D. A., Bullis, R. A. & Browdy, C. L. (2006). The use of algal meals as highly unsaturated fatty acid sources in practical diets designed for Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquacult. Nutr., 12, 395–401.
Hamidoghli A, Yun H, Shahkar E, et al. (2018). Optimum dietary protein-to-energy ratio for juvenile whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vanname, reared in a biofloc system [J]. Aquaculture Research, 1-12.
Iverson S J, Lang S L, Cooper M H (2001). Comparison of the Bligh and Dyer and Folch methods for total lipid determination in a broad range of marine tissue. Lipids 36 (11), 1283-1287.
Morrison W R, Smith L M (1964). Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and dimethylacetals from lipids with boron fluoride–methanol. J Lipid Res 5 (4), 600-608.
Ledoux M, Lamy F (1986). Determination of proteins and sulfobetaine with the folin-phenol reagent. Anal Biochem 157 (1), 28-31.
Gupta N, Rathi P, Gupta R (2002). Simplified para-nitrophenylpalmitate assay for lipases and esterases. Anal Biochem 311 (1), 98-99.
Ju Z Y, Castille F, Deng D, Dominy W G, Lawrence A L, Forster I P (2012). Effects of replacing fish oil with stearine as main lipid source in diet on growth and survival of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Aquac Res 43 (10), 1528-1535.
Niu J, Liu Y J, Tian L X, Mau K S, Lin H Z, Chen X, Yang H J, Liang G Y (2011). Influence of dietary phospholipids level on growth performance, body composition and lipid class of early post larval Litopenaeus vannamei. AquacultNutr 17 (2), E615-E621.
Zhang S P, Li J F, Xiao Chun W, Zhong W J, Xian J A, Liao S A, Miao Y T, Wang A L (2013) Effects of different dietary lipid level on the growth, survival and immune-relating genes expression in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Fish Shellfish Immun 34 (5), 1131-1138.
González-Félix M L, Gatlin III D M, Lawrence A L, et al. (2002). Effect of dietary phospholipid on essential fatty acid requirements and tissue lipid composition of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. Aquaculture, 207 (1), 151-167.
Zuo Rantao, Ai Qinghui, Mai Kangsen, et al., (2012). Effects of dietary docosahexaenoic to eicosapentaenoic acid ratio (DHA/EPA) on growth, nonspecific immunity, expression of some immune related genes and disease resistance of large yellow croaker (Larmichthyscrocea) following natural infestation of parasites (Cryptocaryonirritans). Aquaculture 334-337, 101-109.
Sookying D, Davis D A (2011). Pond production of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) fed high levels of soybean meal in various combinations. Aquaculture 319 (1), 141-149.
Zhong G, Hua X, Yuan K, Zhou H (2011. Effect of CGM on growth performance and digestibility in puffer (Takifugufasciatus). AquacultInt 19 (3), 395-403.
Izquierdo M, Forster I, Divakaran S, Conquest L, Decamp O, Tacon A (2006). Effect of green and clear water and lipid source on survival, growth and biochemical composition of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquacult Nutr 12 (3), 192-202.
González-Félix M L, Da Silva F S D, Davis D A, Samocha T M, Morris T C, Wilkenfeld J S, Perez-Velazquez M (2010). Replacement of fish oil in plant based diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquaculture 309 (1), 152-158.
Mercier L, Racotta I S, Yepiz-Plascencia G, Muhlia-Almazán A, Civera R, Quiñones-Arreola M F, Wille M, Sorgeloos P, Palacios E (2009). Effect of diets containing different levels of highly unsaturated fatty acids on physiological and immune responses in Pacific whitelegshrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) exposed to handling stress. Aquac Res 40 (16), 1849-1863.
Forster I P, Dominy W G, Obaldo L G, et al. (2011). The effect of soybean oil containing stearidonic acid on growth performance, n-3 fatty acid deposition and sensory characteristics of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquaculture nutrition, 17 (2), 200-213.
Wang Y (2007) Effect of probiotics on growth performance and digestive enzyme activity of the shrimp, Penaeusvannamei. Aquaculture 269 (1), 259-264.
Xiang Dong L, RuiTao X, LingXiang Z, et al. (2011). Effects of different lipids in dietary feed of Litopenaues vannamei juvenile prawn on its growth and composition of liver fatty acids. Journal of Southern Agriculture, 42 (4), 441-445.
Li X H, Wang B J, Wang L, et al. (2008). Biochemical characterization and molecular cloning of penaeid shrimp hemolymph lipoproteins. Marine Science, 32 (11): 80-83.
Browse journals by subject