Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

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Effect of Intra Row Spacing and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates on Growth Performance of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) at Wolkite University, Central Ethiopia

Received: 27 November 2023    Accepted: 21 December 2023    Published: 11 January 2024
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Abstract

Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the most important and economical vegetable crop produced in Ethiopia including Gurage zone. Use of appropriate plant spacing’s and optimum nitrogen application are the major agronomic practice to improve the productivity of hot pepper. However, the productivity of hot pepper is low its potential due to many factors such as poor soil fertility, under or above optimum plant population, inappropriate fertilizer application with blanket application in all soil type and crop varieties. Therefore, this experiment was conducted at Wolkite University, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource Demonstration site with the objectives of determining the optimum level of N fertilizer and intra-row spacing for better growth of hot pepper. The experiment consisted of three levels of nitrogen (N1 (75 kg/ha), N2 (100 kg/ha), N3 (125 kg/ha)) and two levels of intra-row spacing (S1 (70×25cm) and S2 (70×30cm)). The inter row spacing was maintained as 70cm. The experiment was laid out in 3×2 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The analysis of variance revealed that the main effects of intra row spacing and nitrogen rates as well as the interaction of the two factors had a significant effect in all tested growth parameters of hot pepper. The main effect of nitrogen resulted maximum plant height (49.92cm), leaf number per plant (35.45), and number of branch per plant (10.92) which were recorded by the application of 125kg/ha nitrogen. Likewise, the main effect of intra row spacing gave maximum plant height (49.52cm) at 25cm plant spacing, and leaf number per plant (35.30), and number of branch per plant (11.21) from 30cm plant spacing. For interaction effect, the highest plant height (52.00cm) were recorded from S1N3 (25cm plant spacing and 125kg/ha N), whereas the maximum leaf number per plant (38.83) and number of branch per plant (12.67) were obtained from S2N2 (30cm plant spacing and 100kg/ha N fertilizer). Mostly, leaf number and number of branch positively correlated with yield of the crops where the branch increased fruit setting become increased as a result yield increased. Therefore, applying 100 kg/ha N with 70×30 cm plant spacing can be advisable for hot pepper production.

DOI 10.11648/j.aff.20241301.12
Published in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Volume 13, Issue 1, February 2024)
Page(s) 8-12
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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Intra Row Spacing, N Fertilizer, Growth Performance and Hot Pepper

References
[1] Castilla, N. and Fereres, E. (1999). Tomato growth and yield in unheated plastic greenhouse in a Mediterranean climate Agri. Med. 120: 31-40.
[2] Collingwood, E. F. (1988). Vegetable Production under Arid and Semi-arid Conditions in Tropical Africa, Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome.
[3] EARO (Ethiopian Agricultural research Organization) (2004). Released crop varieties and their recommended cultural practices. Progress report. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[4] Geleta Legesse (1998). Genetic Variability and association for yield, quality and other traits of yield of hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) PP1-69. Msc. thesis.
[5] Greenleaf, W. H. (1986). Pepper breeding in; Bassett, M. J. (Ed) breeding vegetable crops.avi. publishing, Westport, connecrticut PP67-134.
[6] Kinet, J. M., Sachs, R. M., and Bernier, G. (1985). The physiology of flowering Vol. 1CRC. Press Inc. Pp. 456-460.
[7] Kumar, Dharmendra, Singh, P. V. and Kumar, Ajay (2001). Effect of different level of spacing on growth and yield of hot pepper. Agric. Sci. Digest, 21(2): 139-140.
[8] Roy, S. S., Khan, M. S. I., and Pal, K. K. (2011). Nitrogen and Phosphorus Efficiency on the Fruit Size and Yield of Capsicum. Journal of Experimental Sciences, 2(1): 32-37.
[9] Stoffella, P. J., and Bryan, H. H. (1988). Plant population influences growth and yields of bell pepper. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 113: 835-839.
[10] Stroehlein, J. L., and Oebker, N. F. (1998). The effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on yield and tissue analysis of chilli pepper. Commun. Soil. Sci. Plant Anal. 10: 551-563.
[11] Poulos, J. M. (1993). Pepper breeding. In breeding of saponaceous and Cole crops Asian Vegetable research and development center (AVRDC). Shamhua, tainon, Taiwan.
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    Legese, D. G. (2024). Effect of Intra Row Spacing and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates on Growth Performance of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) at Wolkite University, Central Ethiopia. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 13(1), 8-12. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.aff.20241301.12

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    Legese, D. G. Effect of Intra Row Spacing and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates on Growth Performance of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) at Wolkite University, Central Ethiopia. Agric. For. Fish. 2024, 13(1), 8-12. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20241301.12

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    AMA Style

    Legese DG. Effect of Intra Row Spacing and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates on Growth Performance of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) at Wolkite University, Central Ethiopia. Agric For Fish. 2024;13(1):8-12. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20241301.12

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  • @article{10.11648/j.aff.20241301.12,
      author = {Damtew Girma Legese},
      title = {Effect of Intra Row Spacing and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates on Growth Performance of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) at Wolkite University, Central Ethiopia},
      journal = {Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {8-12},
      doi = {10.11648/j.aff.20241301.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.aff.20241301.12},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.aff.20241301.12},
      abstract = {Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the most important and economical vegetable crop produced in Ethiopia including Gurage zone. Use of appropriate plant spacing’s and optimum nitrogen application are the major agronomic practice to improve the productivity of hot pepper. However, the productivity of hot pepper is low its potential due to many factors such as poor soil fertility, under or above optimum plant population, inappropriate fertilizer application with blanket application in all soil type and crop varieties. Therefore, this experiment was conducted at Wolkite University, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource Demonstration site with the objectives of determining the optimum level of N fertilizer and intra-row spacing for better growth of hot pepper. The experiment consisted of three levels of nitrogen (N1 (75 kg/ha), N2 (100 kg/ha), N3 (125 kg/ha)) and two levels of intra-row spacing (S1 (70×25cm) and S2 (70×30cm)). The inter row spacing was maintained as 70cm. The experiment was laid out in 3×2 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The analysis of variance revealed that the main effects of intra row spacing and nitrogen rates as well as the interaction of the two factors had a significant effect in all tested growth parameters of hot pepper. The main effect of nitrogen resulted maximum plant height (49.92cm), leaf number per plant (35.45), and number of branch per plant (10.92) which were recorded by the application of 125kg/ha nitrogen. Likewise, the main effect of intra row spacing gave maximum plant height (49.52cm) at 25cm plant spacing, and leaf number per plant (35.30), and number of branch per plant (11.21) from 30cm plant spacing. For interaction effect, the highest plant height (52.00cm) were recorded from S1N3 (25cm plant spacing and 125kg/ha N), whereas the maximum leaf number per plant (38.83) and number of branch per plant (12.67) were obtained from S2N2 (30cm plant spacing and 100kg/ha N fertilizer). Mostly, leaf number and number of branch positively correlated with yield of the crops where the branch increased fruit setting become increased as a result yield increased. Therefore, applying 100 kg/ha N with 70×30 cm plant spacing can be advisable for hot pepper production.
    },
     year = {2024}
    }
    

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    AU  - Damtew Girma Legese
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    DO  - 10.11648/j.aff.20241301.12
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    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.aff.20241301.12
    AB  - Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the most important and economical vegetable crop produced in Ethiopia including Gurage zone. Use of appropriate plant spacing’s and optimum nitrogen application are the major agronomic practice to improve the productivity of hot pepper. However, the productivity of hot pepper is low its potential due to many factors such as poor soil fertility, under or above optimum plant population, inappropriate fertilizer application with blanket application in all soil type and crop varieties. Therefore, this experiment was conducted at Wolkite University, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource Demonstration site with the objectives of determining the optimum level of N fertilizer and intra-row spacing for better growth of hot pepper. The experiment consisted of three levels of nitrogen (N1 (75 kg/ha), N2 (100 kg/ha), N3 (125 kg/ha)) and two levels of intra-row spacing (S1 (70×25cm) and S2 (70×30cm)). The inter row spacing was maintained as 70cm. The experiment was laid out in 3×2 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The analysis of variance revealed that the main effects of intra row spacing and nitrogen rates as well as the interaction of the two factors had a significant effect in all tested growth parameters of hot pepper. The main effect of nitrogen resulted maximum plant height (49.92cm), leaf number per plant (35.45), and number of branch per plant (10.92) which were recorded by the application of 125kg/ha nitrogen. Likewise, the main effect of intra row spacing gave maximum plant height (49.52cm) at 25cm plant spacing, and leaf number per plant (35.30), and number of branch per plant (11.21) from 30cm plant spacing. For interaction effect, the highest plant height (52.00cm) were recorded from S1N3 (25cm plant spacing and 125kg/ha N), whereas the maximum leaf number per plant (38.83) and number of branch per plant (12.67) were obtained from S2N2 (30cm plant spacing and 100kg/ha N fertilizer). Mostly, leaf number and number of branch positively correlated with yield of the crops where the branch increased fruit setting become increased as a result yield increased. Therefore, applying 100 kg/ha N with 70×30 cm plant spacing can be advisable for hot pepper production.
    
    VL  - 13
    IS  - 1
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Wolkite University, Wolkite, Ethiopia

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